65% of Large UK Businesses Were Breached Last Year. Were You One of Them?

If statistics are anything to go by, UK businesses are as well equipped to fight back against hackers as a toddler is against a pack of wolves.

More than 65% of large companies in the UK have suffered at least one cyber security attack in the past 12 months, according to the recently released Cyber Security Breaches Survey 2016.

Such poor data security practices have led to devastating financial repercussions. In the largest data breach case, more than £3 million was lost.

Read more

Data Breach of Verizon a Grim Reminder To Us All: No One’s Bulletproof

To your everyday man on the street, Verizon Communications is an American broadband and telecommunications company. But to those of us in the IT security line, Verizon is also one of the frontliners in the fight against cybercrime, responsible for helping many Fortune 500 companies respond to massive data breaches.

But in a tragic turn of events, Brian Krebs reported last week that Verizon has suffered a data breach, resulting in the theft of 1.5 million records of their customers’ information. Read more

Cardholder Data Discovery: Anatomy of a Credit Card, BIN ranges & Luhn checks

We often get the same questions regarding length of a PAN number, BIN ranges and Luhn checks when dealing with cardholder data discovery projects. We thought some clarification was needed so we will describe below what a PAN number is made of, what BIN ranges refer to and how you can work out a Luhn check (also know as MOD10) and validate a credit card using pen and paper.

Anatomy of a Credit Card

A credit card number, for example: 1234567812345678, consists of 3 parts:
Anatomy of a creditcard
The bank identification number
The first six digits is the bank identification number (BIN) or issuer identification number (IIN) to identify the issuer of the card.
The acccount number
The number between the bank identification number and the check digit is 6 to 9 digits long and is used to identify the individual account number.
The check digit
The last digit is the check digit and is added to validate the authenticity of the credit card number (based on the Luhn algorithm).

Bank Identification Number (BIN) & Issuer Information Number (IIN) ranges

The first digit of the card represents the category of industry (IIN) that issued your credit card. For example if you use VISA or MasterCard, your card’s first digit should be either 4 or 5 as they are from the banking and financial industry. American Express is in the travel category and cards issued by them have 3 as the first digit. Below is the list of issuer category.

IIN numbers

Below are some BIN numbers associated to related brands. As you can see the length of a credit card will vary according to the brand. They are not all 16 digits.

Credit card brand

Bank identification number prefix

Credit card number length

American Express



Diners Club Carte Blanche



Diners Club International



Diners Club US and Canada



Discover Card





















Visa Electron



Luhn check or MOD 10 checksum

The final digit of your credit card number is a check digit, akin to a checksum. The algorithm used to arrive at the proper check digit is called the Luhn algorithm, after IBM scientist Hans Peter Luhn (1896-1964).
The LUHN Formula, known also as a Mod 10 calculation, can be used to validate primary account numbers.

How does it work using pen and paper?

➢ Write down the credit card number:

4417 1234 5678 9113

➢ Starting from the check digit and moving to the left, double every second digit

4(x2) 4 1(x2) 7 1(x2) 2 3(x2) 4 5(x2) 6 7(x2) 8 9(x2) 1 1(x2) 3

The doubled numbers result in: 8 2 2 6 10 14 18 2

➢ If the result of the doubling ends up with a 2 digit number then add those 2 digits together:

10 = 1+0 14= 1+4 18= 1+8

➢ Add up all numbers:

8+4+2+7 + 2+2+6+4 + 1+0+6+1+4+8 + 1+8+1+2+3 = 70

If the final sum is divisible by 10, then the credit card is valid. If it is not divisible by 10, the number is invalid or fake. In the above example, credit card number 4417 1234 5678 9113 has passed the Luhn test.

The LUHN formula was designed to protect against accidental errors, not malicious attacks. Most credit cards and many government identification numbers use the algorithm as a simple method of distinguishing valid numbers from random digits. The LUHN algorithm will detect almost any single-digit error.

There you have it, the anatomy of a credit card number.